A Review of Salmonella Prevalence and Salmonellosis Burden in the Caribbean Community Member Countries
Salmonella is thought to be a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries. These countries have limited resources that may hinder national efforts to ensure food safety. There-fore, CARICOM countries strive to mitigate the risk of foodborne illness through collaborative regional efforts and enhanced legislation. However, the lack of epidemiological infrastructure, low literacy and/or awareness levels of food handlers, and lack of regulatory enforcement contrib-ute to the widespread emergence of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens. Processing and sale of cooked food in substandard conditions, as well as on-farm contamina-tion, are among the contributory factors responsible for foodborne illnesses. The first step toward implementing public health measures targeting the food supply is to con-textualize the issue and determine the magnitude of the problem. Therefore, the objective of this narrative review article is to summarize the prevalence of nontyphoidal Salmonella and the burden of foodborne salmonellosis in CARICOM states. We present a critical synopsis of Salmonella transmission throughout the food chain in CARICOM countries, including poultry meat and egg products, ready-to-eat foods, and street vendors. Additionally, we include information on the epidemiological burden of salmonellosis in the region, focusing on the effect on tourism and cur-rent management strategies for risk mitigation.
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